Alexander Zakharov: Astrophysical Black Holes

The black hole term has been introduced by J. A. Wheeler in 1967. We illustrate an efficiency of the idea for theoretical and observational studies of our Galactic Center. Now there are two basic observational techniques to investigate a gravitational potential at the Galactic Center to prove a presence of a supermassive black hole, namely, (a) monitoring the orbits of bright stars near the Galactic Center with the largest telescopes; (b) measuring the size and shape of shadows around black hole giving an alternative possibility to evaluate black hole parameters with the Event Horizon Telescope. Recently, the joint LIGO — Virgo team not only discovered gravitational waves and binary black holes but also found an upper limit on graviton mass mg < 1.2 x 10-22 eV (Abbott et al. 2016). We show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could constrain graviton mass with a comparable accuracy. We discuss opportunities to improve current estimates of graviton mass significantly with subsequent observations of Keck, VLT, GRAVITY, E-ELT and TMT.

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